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24 September 1917 Brandeis cables London that President Wilson is sympathetic to the Zionist project

31 January 1917 Mark Sykes given a redrafted memorandum of Zionist views

28 May 1917 Letter from Lord Rothschild in the Times which responded to anti-Zionism of Claude Montefiore and D. L. Alexander.

30 September 1916 Sokolov is charged by the executive committee of the English Zionist Federation with the writing of a document which will eventually be presented to the British government.

15 March 1916 Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Sazonov viewed the settlement of the Jews in Palestine with sympathy

Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild dies

Secret agreement between Britain, France, Russia and Italy to divide up the Ottoman Empire

Edwin Montagu, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and Herbert Samuel’s cousin writes a detailed critique of Sanuel’s pro-Zionist memo to PM Hebert Asquith

Herbert Samuel revamps his memo now entitled ‘Palestine’ and distributes it to Cabinet members in early March 1915

Chaim Weizmann meets Arthur Balfour who is now a member of the War Council

In January 1918, (Evreiskii Komissariat; EVKOM), the Commissariat for Jewish Affairs is established by Bolsheviks in Russia

League of British Jews founded to protect the interests of British Jews and oppose defining them as a nationality. They opposed the Balfour Declaration and the establishment of the Hebrew University.

Israel’s Declaration cites the Balfour Declaration as the first in a series of international affirmations that underpin the right of the Jewish people to rebuild its National Home.

October 6, 1917 – War Cabinet Secretariat invites Jewish proponents and opponents to submit memoranda on the declaration draft. Chief Rabbi Hertz, Lord Rothschild, Nahum Sokolow, and Chaim Weizmann write in favor. Leonard Cohen, Philip Magnus, Claude Montefiore, wrote against. Stuart Samuel summarized the views of British Jews but did not take a stance. Opponents did not oppose Palestine as a sanctuary but objected to the “national home” idea.

Chief Rabbi Dr. Hertz writes to the “The Times” to dispel “the misconception” that the anti-Zionist Conjoint speaks for British Jewry

War Cabinet approves final text (Alfred Milner-L.S.Amery version) for Balfour Declaration

Weizmann meets with Gen. Jan Smuts, War Cabinet member, who supported the Zionist cause

In June 1917, Balfour asks Weizmann to submit a draft of a British government declaration on Palestine that would be satisfactory to the Zionists.

First Hebrew-language weekly Ha’Olam under Nahum Sokolow’s editorships is published in Germany

Exiles from Babylon return to rebuild Jerusalem’s walls. Ezra reads the Torah.

<586 BCE- Destruction of Jerusalem and First Temple; Mass deportation to Babylonia

1250 BCE -Conquest of Canaan under Joshua

July 1917 – T. E. Lawrence leads Arab force that capture Aqaba/Eilat from the Ottomans

SLIDE TWO Government-inspired anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia following assassination of Tsar Alexander II

SLIDE TWO Chaim Weizmann, Zionist statements and a driving force for Balfour Declaration, born in Motol, White Russia

SLIDE TWO Theodor Herzl, founder of modern political Zionism, born in Budapest

December 13, 1949 – The Knesset votes to transfer Israel’s capital to Jerusalem, rejecting a UN call for the city’s internationalization

December 1949 – Jordan annexes West Bank

November 1949 – After 18 months of independence there are 1 million Jews in Israel

August 17, 1949 – Theodor Herzl’s remains reinterred in Jerusalem

May 11, 1949 – Israel admitted into UN

January-July 1949 – Armistice Agreements signed with Egypt, Lebanon, Transjordan and Syria under UN auspices in Rhodes. The 1967 Six Day War begins from these boundaries

1949 – Irgun chief Menachem Begin creates opposition Herut Party

February 17, 1949 – Weizmann elected president

February 14, 1949 – First Knesset (parliament) opens

January 28, 1949 – Britain recognizes Israel

– First Knesset elections held. Mapai wins first Israel elections; David Ben-Gurion is prime minister

November 8, 1948 – There are 782,000 Jews and 69,000 Arabs in newly declared Jewish state

August 2, 1948 – “Drive the Jews into the sea… and never accept the Jewish state,” exhorts Muslim Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna, reported by “The New York Times”

May 18, 1948 – Saudi Arabia joins Arabs fighting Israel

May 17, 1948 – The Soviet Union recognizes Israel

May 16, 1948 – Chaim Weizmann elected Chairman of the Provisional State Council of Israel. David Ben-Gurion is prime minister

May 14, 1948 – US grants Israel de-facto recognition

May 14, 1948 – Vatican newspaper editorializes that “modern Zionism is not the true heir of Biblical Israel… Christianity [is] the true Israel”

1948 – Arabs flee fighting; some are expelled. Some 600,000 become permanent refugees. Arab world rejects absorption and resettlement of the refugees. A somewhat larger number of Jews will flee the Arab world for Israel in the years to come

Arabs declare Israel’s creation a “Nakba” or catastrophe

May 14, 1948 – At 5 o’clock in the afternoon, on Shabbat Eve, Zionist leaders led by Ben-Gurion declare in Tel Aviv the establishment of a Jewish state. (Hebrew date: 5 Iyar 5708.) Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon invade and join battle on the side of Palestinian Arab irregulars. Arabs declare Israel’s creation a “Nakba” or catastrophe

May 14, 1948 – British Mandate for Palestine ends. British troops evacuate country

March 22, 1948 – Road to Jerusalem cut by Arab forces. Jewish Jerusalem besieged

“The Palestine Post,” a Zionist newspaper (now “The Jerusalem Post”) is bombed

December 1947 – Massive Arab riots; hundreds of Jews killed

1947 – Discovery of Dead Sea Scrolls in Judean Desert

November 29, 1947 – UN General Assembly votes 33-13, with 10 abstentions (including Britain), to adopt a resolution requiring the establishment of Jewish and Arab states in Palestine. The Jewish Agency accepts the decision; the Palestinian Arab leadership rejects the plan insisting that all of Palestine should be an Arab state

October 1947 – Arab League pledges to finance Palestinian Arab military campaign against creation of Jewish state

September 26, 1947 – Britain announces its intention to end the Mandate

UN Special Committee on Palestine calls for partition into two independent states, one Arab and one Jewish

July 18, 1947 – British seize the “Exodus” carrying 4,000 refugees to Palestine and send them back to Displaced Person camps in Germany

June 11-July 9, 1947 – Arabs and Jews agree on truce

June 29, 1947 – Irgun hangs three British soldiers in retaliation for the hanging of Irgun men. British soldiers in Tel Aviv respond by killing five and wounding many in Tel Aviv shooting spree

May 15, 1947 – UN Special Committee on Palestine set up

May 4, 1946 – Irgun attacks Acre prison; releases dozens of prisoners

April 16, 1947 – Britain hangs four captured Irgun fighters. Two others facing death sentences commit suicide

March 19, 1947 – US backtracks on support for Jewish state

February 18, 1947 – Britain calls on the UN to decide Palestine’s fate. Ben-Gurion returns to Palestine. Clashes with British soldiers continue

December 9, 1946 – 22nd Zionist Congress meets in Basle in the hall where the First Congress was convened in 1897. Ben-Gurion warns it may be necessary to take up arms for statehood

28 May 1946– Egypt’s King Farouk hosts the first Arab summit to create front against establishment of Jewish state

October 4, 1946 – Truman administration calls for allowing 100,000 Jewish refugees to enter Palestine

August 13, 1946 – Britain redirects Holocaust survivors seeking entry to Palestine to Cyprus

July 30, 1946 – Four-day curfew on Tel Aviv as British search for terrorists

July 22, 1946 – Irgun and Stern Gang blow up British military headquarters in wing of King David Hotel. Haganah and Jewish Agency condemn attack

June 29, 1946 – Massive crackdown by British forces on Zionist leadership

June 1946 – Combined Jewish underground destroys bridges connecting Palestine to neighboring countries

March 27, 1946 – Thousands of Tel Aviv residents gather on beach to welcome an “illegal” refugee boat and clash with British security forces

December 2, 1945 – First branch of Muslim Brotherhood formed in Jerusalem

October 1945 – The three Jewish underground branches Haganah, Irgun and Lehi agree to pursue joint military campaign against British

August 25, 1945 – British allow “illegal” Jewish emigrants (Holocaust survivors) who have been held on Mauritius to enter Palestine

1945 – Foreign Secretary Bevin declares immigration of Holocaust survivors to Palestine illegal

May 1945 – There are 554,329 Jews in Palestine (30 percent of the population)

WWII ends in Europe. Death camps liberated. Six million Jews exterminated by Germans and their collaborators

March 22, 1945 – Arab League of States formed in Cairo

Nazi Einsatzgruppen mobile killing squads active in Poland

Nazis – Communists sign non-aggression pact

April 19-30, 1943 Bermuda Conference British and American representatives fail to come up with approach to saving European Jews from Hitler

British forces capture Baghdad

In Iraq, pro-Nazi government set up by Rashid Ali al-Gaylani

Lehi assassinates Lord Moyne, responsible for implementing the White Paper policy, in Cairo. A racist, Moyne believed Palestine should go to the Arabs as their race was “purer” than the “mixed” Jewish race

November 4, 1944 – Weizmann meets Churchill, who says he supports creation of Jewish state

October 1944 – Haganah demands Irgun end operations against the British

By September 1944, British agree to create Jewish Brigade, which sees combat briefly in northern Italy in February 1945

March 15, 1944 – Roosevelt administration dissociates from White Paper

“Kill the Jews wherever you find them. It would please God, history and religion,” exhorts Haj Amin al-Husseini in Arabic broadcast on the Nazi Berlin Radio

1944 – Irgun’s Menachem Begin declares Jewish Revolt against the British

1944 – Both Stern Gang and Irgun now attack British targets in Palestine

1943 – Small units of Palestinian Jewish commandos under British command operate behind German lines in occupied Europe

Himmler, Reichsführer and SS chief, to the Grand Mufti on the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration proclaiming the Nazi’s admiration and sympathy for the Mufti’s struggle against the Jews. Mufti now based in Berlin

By 1942, Death camps at Auschwitz, Maidanek and Treblinka function at full capacity. Transports from ghettos to death camps run at capacity

By November 1942, Palestinian Jews become increasingly aware of the genocide being committed against the Jews of Europe by the Nazis and their enablers

October 23, 1942 – General Montgomery pushes Rommel back at Battle of El Alamein and removes Nazi threat over Palestine

Summer – Fresh fears that Rommel will advance into Palestine. General call-up of Palestinian Jews to prepare for Nazi invasion

May 11, 1942 – Zionists adopt Biltmore program that Palestine be established as a Jewish Commonwealth

February 24, 1942 – “Struma” sunk in Black Sea after Britain refuses to allow its 770 passengers to land in Palestine. All but one passenger killed

February 12, 1942 – British police kill Jewish militant Avraham Stern

Wannsee Conference

November 1941 – Ben-Gurion in US on Zionist business

November 1941 – Weizmann appeals to British to create Jewish fighting force

October 5, 1941 – Louis Brandeis dies in Washington, DC

Italy bombs Haifa and Tel Aviv from air June 10-12, 1941 in campaign that began in 1940

June 8, 1941 – Britain, aided by Haganah, takes Lebanon and Syria from Vichy control

David Raziel, a founder of the Irgun, killed in Iraq

May 1941 – British-led Haganah sabotage team disappears at sea

1941 – Haganah organizes elite Palmach fighting unit to prepare for Nazi invasion

1941 – Germany forbids Jews to emigrate

1941 – Germany invades Russia engulfing millions more Jews in its web of destruction

April 1941 – Fear of Nazis invading Palestine is palpable. German General Rommel at Libyan-Egyptian border

March 1941 – Chaim Weizmann in US for war effort

November 25, 1940 – In an effort to block British from returning ship carrying 1,700 asylum seekers, Haganah sinks ship. More than 200 refugees drown

September 9, 1940 – Italian Fascist planes bomb Tel Aviv; 100 dead

August 4, 1940 – Ze’ev Jabotinsky dies in New York

July 15, 1940 – Italian Fascist planes bomb Haifa; 50 dead

1940 – Western Europe under German occupation. Jews in Poland herded into ghettos

Churchill becomes British Prime Minister

Syria/Lebanon under pro-Nazi French (Vichy) administration.

Imposition of White Paper against Jews buying land and against immigration

Weizmann meets First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill in London

Jewish refugees seek to break British maritime blockade of Palestine

British naval vessel off Palestine coast fires at the “Tiger Hill,” a ship bringing asylum seekers to Palestine. Two refugees on board killed

United Jewish Appeal founded to raise money for Zionist settlement and development

shifts away from Havlagah

Lechi commits to armed struggle against British policies

Palestinian Arabs, led by Mufti of Jerusalem, reject White Paper which promises Arabs control over Jewish immigration

MacDonald White Paper issued

Haganah makes its forces available to the British. Irgun calls halt to revolt against British to concentrate against Nazis

David Ben-Gurion declares: “We shall fight the war against Hitler as if there were no White Paper, and the White Paper as if there were no war.”

Britain and France declare war on Germany

World War II begins when Germany invades Poland

Death of Moses Gaster, Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish congregation in London

21st Zionist Congress held in Geneva. Eve of World War II

In April 1939, Jews double down on “illegal” immigration to Palestine. New settlements created

British try to bring Jews and Arabs together in London. Arabs refuse to negotiate

Militant anti-Zionist ultra-Orthodox Jews in Jerusalem establish Neturei Karta maintaining that Jews are forbidden to have their own state until the coming of the Messiah

Weizmann sees Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain

Nazis weigh deporting German Jews to Madagascar


In June 1938, British authorities execute Irgun member Shlomo Ben-Yosef

Palestinian Jews construct security barrier in Galilee to deter Arab infiltrators

British forces recapture major Arab population centers in Palestine from Mufti’s men

20th Zionist Congress convenes in Zurich

>July 23, 1937 –Sir Henry McMahon writes in the Times: “It was not intended by me giving this pledge to [the Sharif] to include Palestine in the area in whuch Arab independence was promised.

By April 1937, Nazis troubled about Jewish emigration out of Germany slowing because of Arab riots in Palestine. Rather than leaving, too many German Jews are adjusting to second-class status

In 1937, Orde Wingate trains Jewish self-defence forces

settlements build watchtowers

Mufti flees to Lebanon

Peel Commission proposes partition of eastern Palestine

20th Zionist Congress – Zurich, Switzerland (1937)

Palestine Symphony Orchestra established. Arturo Toscanini conducts

In November 1936, Peel Commission arrives in Palestine to examine causes of Arab violence

Haganah continue policy of “Havlagah” or passive defense

In May 1936, Ad-hoc group of Jewish elders tries and fails to reach an accommodation with the Arabs

Arab Revolt riots and strikes in Palestine. Lebanese irregulars join fighting in Palestine. Violence will continue until 1939

British establish Palestine Radio which includes first ever Hebrew-language radio broadcasts heard throughout the region

By 1935, Jews now compromise 30 percent of Palestine’s population

Jabotinsky’s New Zionist Organization meets in Vienna

19th Zionist Congress meets in Lucerne, Switzerland; Weizmann returns as president of WZO

Nuremberg Laws

Ben-Gurion and Jabotinsky try unsuccessfully to iron out their differences in London

In 1934, Zionist groups in Palestine organize “illegal” immigration circumventing British policies

18th Zionist Congress in Prague

meetings on future of Palestine between Jewish Agency head David Ben-Gurion and Palestinian Arab leaders Awni Abd al-Hadi, Musa al-Alami and George Antonius, a Lebanese-Egyptian Christian now resident in Jerusalem

Haavara Agreement

Haifa Harbor opened

Arlosoroff assassinated in Tel Aviv

Hitler becomes German Chancellor ;

From 1932 until 1939 the Fifth Aliyah (or immigration wave) brings nearly 250,000 Jews arrive into British-occupied Palestine

Jews now comprise 17 percent of population

In 1931, 17th Zionist Congress

Haganah splits

Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald

Ben-Gurion camp wins 40 percent of seats to Palestinian Jewish assembly against 20 percent for supporters of Jabotinsky

British White Paper on Palestine, issued by Colonial Secretary Lord Passfield, limits the establishment of Jewish agricultural settlement. Weizmann protests

British Hope-Simpson committee proposes moratorium on Jewish immigration and a settlement freeze

Balfour dies

Mapai Labour Party formed

League of Nations forms commission to examine Arab-Jewish violence and rights to Jewish prayer at Western Wall

Lucien Wolf dies

Jerusalem stone

British Shaw Commission sent to study reasons for Arab rioting and violence

Arabs riot throughout Palestine; massacres in Jerusalem, Hebron (67 killed) and Safed

16th Zionist Congress held in Zurich

Arab riots break Yom Kippur

Muslim religious leaders seek to limit Jewish worship at Western Wall in Jerusalem

15th World Zionist Congress meets in Basle

Weizmann and US Jewish non-Zionist leader Louis Marshall of the American Jewish Committee (AJC) meet

Ahad Ha’Am, founder of cultural Zionism, dies

Economic depression

Keren ha-Yesod moves its headquarters to Jerusalem

Max Nordau’s remains reinterred in Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv’s population reaches 40,000

14th Zionist Congress meets in Vienna

Jabotinsky establishes Revisionist Zionist opposition party

Balfour arrives in Damascus to protests outside his hotel

Balfour tours Palestine for three days

Hebrew University of Jerusalem officially opened by Lord Balfour

Palestine Jewish Colonization Association founded in 1924

Weizmann opposes urban development in Palestine, apparently referring to places such as ultra-Orthodox B’nei Brak, founded in May

Fourth Aliyah

Betar, the Jabotinsky youth movement, formed in Riga, Latvia

Mandate for Palestine comes into effect

13th Zionist Congress held in Carlsbad, Czechoslovakia. Weizmann re-elected president

Max Nordau dies in Paris

Golan Heights to French Mandate of Syria

Jabotinsky resigns from Executive to protest Weizmann’s soft line vis-a-vis British refusal to formalize Zionist national council in Palestine

census in Palestine

Mandate’s terms finalized and unanimously approved by the League of Nations

Cardinal Gasparri denounces Zionism

Churchill White Paper calls for a limitation of Jewish immigration in order to reduce Arab resentment

Palestinian Arab delegation visits London to protest Balfour Declaration

British establish Supreme Muslim Council with Haj Amin al-Husseini as President

Ben-Gurion returns to Palestine after a year in London on Zionist business

“Hadoar,” the first Hebrew daily newspaper

Brandeis-Weizmann split

The pope laments that the “new civil arrangement” [British Mandate] has weakened Christianity and strengthened Judaism

British declare moratorium on Jewish immigration

>1921 – The British engineer the election of Haj Amin al-Husseini as the Mufti of Jerusalem. He’d been appointed May 8, 1920.

Deadly Arab riots in Jaffa, Petah Tikva, Hadera and Rehovot claim 47 dead between May 1-6, 1921

>April 11, 1921 – Transjordan established under Crown Prince Abdullah after Britain granted the Eastern part of Mandatory Palestine to the Arabs

Albert Einstein visits US with Chaim Weizmann on a fundraising tour for Hebrew University

Disbanding of the Jewish Legion

Treaty of Sevres

Histadrut labor union formed

Sir Herbert Samuel, a British Jewish Zionist, appointed High Commissioner

France demands water supply for Syria

Haganah is founded

Jabotinsky is arrested

The San Remo Conference of the Allied Supreme Council in Italy endorses a Palestine Mandate based on Balfour Declaration

Faisal proclaimed as king of Greater Syria.

Arabs attack Jews in Jerusalem following Islamic religious festival

Arabs attack Tel Hai in Galilee. Joseph Trumpeldor and five other defenders killed

first Arab protests and disturbances

King-Crane did not oppose Jewish settlement in Palestine. It opposed the notion of a Jewish state because it would undermine the rights of the Arab population in Palestine. It reported on 24 August 1919, but the report was not published for several years.

3 February 1919 Zionists present statement to the peace conference.

11 December Weizmann meets Faisal in London

othschild give dinner for Faisal which is attended by senior political figures.

1920 – France tries to torpedo Balfour Declaration saying it never officially approved it

1919 – Balfour, not a member of the British delegation to the Paris Peace Conference but a consultant, writes memo on sidelines of the Conference: “Rooted in age-old traditions… Zionism… has… far profounder import than the desires and prejudices of the 700,000 Arabs who now inhabit that ancient land”

Lord Curzon succeeds Lord Balfour as Foreign Secretary

August 1919 – Weizmann and Brandeis meet in London. Discuss and disagree about structure and operation of Jewish Agency

Balfour memo: “I do not think Zionism will hurt the Arabs, but they will never say they want it”

Brandeis arrives in Palestine

July 1919 – Christian Arab nationalists are Zionism’s most implacable foes. Syrian Congress in Damascus rejects idea of Jewish commonwealth and Jewish immigration to Palestine

Balfour writes to US Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis: “We are consciously seeking to reconstitute a new community and definitely building for a numerical majority in the future”

King-Crane US study group visiting Palestine to gather information for Paris Peace Conference come to anti-Zionist conclusion and advocate Palestine’s incorporation into Greater Syria

Palestine’s temporary British military governor, Major-General Sir Arthur Wigram Money, lobbies government in London against carrying out Balfour Declaration. He is backed by General Clayton

“The Times” reports from Rome the pope saying “It would be for us and all Christians a bitter grief if unbelievers [Zionist Jews] in Palestine were put into a superior or more privileged position”

The pope expresses his growing concern over the Jewish (“infidels”’) role in Palestine

Wilson quoted in newspapers: “I am persuaded that the Allied nations, with the fullest concurrence of our Government and people, are agreed that in Palestine shall be laid the foundations of a Jewish Commonwealth”

“The Tablet” reports Church denying pope ever expressed support for Zionism: He offered good wishes to Jewish home in Palestine, but opposed a state

Feisal writes to US Zionist leader Felix Frankfurter affirming that Arab and Jewish national movements have common interests: “We will wish the Jews a hearty welcome home”

March 1919 – Ben-Gurion in Palestine forms Socialist Zionist Achdut Ha’avodah Party, a precursor to today’s Israeli Labor Party

Paris Peace Conference at Versailles

Newspapers report Weizmann meeting Woodrow Wilson on sidelines of the year-long Paris Peace Conference

Weizmann meets Feisal in London prior to Paris Peace Conference. The leaders sign agreement on the development of an Arab state and [Jewish] Palestine. Faisal warns that the arrangement will be nullified if the Arabs are not granted the British-promised state

Jewish Legion participates in the battle of Megiddo 19-25 September 1918

Jewish Legion

Weizmann returns to Cairo to meet Lawrence of Arabia

Weizmann meets Allenby

First meeting of the Zionist Commission in Jaffa

Weizmann meets two Muslim leaders in Jerusalem

20 March 1918 Zionist Commission arrives in Alexandria.

3 March 1918 Trotsky signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which cedes territory to Germany and takes Russia out of the war.

2 March CW has an audience with King George V who appears to be sympathetic to Zionist aims

Zionist Commission out for Paris en route to Palestine

Semion Diamanshtein, first commissar for Jewish Affairs, former Lubavitcher hassid.

26 January 1918 The Zionist Commission is established by the Middle East Committee of the War Cabinet

Jewish opponents of Zionism re-organize

Jaffa settlement

1919 is year of Third Aliya. Russian Revolution and fighting between Reds and Whites ‎between 1919 and 1920‎ leave 150,000 to as many as 250,000 Jews killed and trigger massive exodus of Jews, many to Palestine

Polish soldiers organize a pogrom against Jews of Galicia, Poland

At eleven o’clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, the World War ends as Germany and Allies sign an Armistice

Zionists celebrate first anniversary of Balfour Declaration

Turkey surrenders

All of Palestine liberated from Turks

Wilson expresses satisfaction about Zionism

Hadassah medical relief team arrives in Jerusalem

Cornerstone-laying ceremony at Hebrew University on Mount Scopus in Jerusalem

Reform Rabbis opposes Zionist aims and Jewish nationalism in Palestine

The 38th Battalion (Jewish forces) arrives in Samaria and prepares to confront Turkish forces

Chaim Weizmann meets Feisal in Aqaba

Zionist Commission, led by Chaim Weizmann, arrives in Palestine

Ukrainian mobs massacre the Jews of Seredino Buda

Russian Communist commissar for Jewish Affairs vows to combat Zionism

Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France meets Sokolow and issues communique announcing complete agreement between French and British governments concerning question of a Jewish establishment in Palestine

President Woodrow Wilson declares his 14 points as the path to permanent world peace. Self-determination promised for national minorities

Rabbi Stephen Weiss at Carnegie Hall Rally in New York City

The pro-Zionist American Jewish Congress holds founding elections

Vatican signals Britain its concern that the Jews might gain direct control over Palestine to the detriment of Christian interests

Turks hang Palestinian Jewish NILI spies Naaman Belkind and Joseph Lishansky who’ve been working for the British

SLIDE 2 (B4) General Allenby enters Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City and quickly posts guards to protect all the sites held sacred by the Christian, Muslim and Jewish religions

British capture Jerusalem from the Turks on Hanukkah eve

Lord Robert Cecil tells House of Commons: “Our wish is that Arabian countries shall be for the Arabs, Armenia for the Armenians and Judaea for the Jews.”

London Opera House for thanksgiving meeting presided over by Lord Rothschild. Lord Robert Cecil declares: “Our wish is that Arabian countries shall be for the Arabs, Armenia for the Armenians, and Judaea for the Jews”

The Manchester “Guardian” publishes text of Sykes-Picot Agreement, leaked by Russian communists

SLIDE 2 (B4) Board of Deputies thanks the Government for their “sympathetic interest in the Jews as manifested by” the Balfour Declaration. Anglo Jewish Association also identifies with Declaration. Jews in Poland and Russia rejoice

>November 11, 1917 – Montagu writes in his diary: “The Government has dealt an irreparable blow at Jewish Britons and they have endeavored to set up a people which does not exist; they have alarmed unnecessarily the whole Moslem world; and in so far as they are successful, they will have a Germanised Palestine on the flank of Egypt. Why we should intern Mahomed Ali in India for Pan-Mohammendanism when we encourage Pan-Judaism I cannot for the life of me understand”

November 1917 – Battle of Jerusalem begins

November 1917 – Australian and New Zealand Army Corps Mounted Division liberates Jaffa

British make still another assault on Gaza Strip.

November 1917 British-led Arab forces advance northwards up the Judean Hills towards Jerusalem defeating Ottomans at Tel el Khuweilfe, Hareira and Sheria, and at Mughar Ridge.

“The Times” reports from Washington on American Jewish enthusiasm for Balfour Declaration. The newspaper says 90 percent of US Jews support Zionism

Newspapers report on Balfour Letter to Rothschild favoring Zionism. ‘A State for the Jews’ (“Daily Express”); ‘Palestine for the Jews’ (“The Times”)

The Communists overthrow Kerensky’s Russian government and install a Communist regime under Lenin

Beer Sheva was captured on 2 November not 7 November

Gaza conquered by the British

Dance for joy

Balfour Declaration issued: Britain promises a national home for the Jews in Palestine

Wickham Steed, head of the Foreign Department of the Times, urges the publication of a decalarion in aleading article

The Times” carries story headlined “Palestine for the Jews” reporting on a manifesto by British Jewish groups in support of Zionism

Lord Curzon opposes the Zionist project

Balfour tells his colleagues that he is in favour of ‘a Jewish national focus in Palestine’

Balfour reads out the Cambon letter to Sokolov to the cabinet

Brandeis cables London that President Wilson is sympathetic to the Zionist project

Brandeis and Stephen Wise meet Colonel House at White House

Sokolow presents ‘Outline of Programme for the Jewish Resettlement of Palestine’ to the English Zionist Federation executive

Weizmann sends a memorandum to Philip Henry Kerr, a member of Lloyd George’s secretariat.

Brandeis meets Balfour twice during his visit to the US

Sokolov meets Pope Benedict XV who expresses his sympathy with the idea of the Jews returning to Palestine

Sokolow meets high ranking French officials in Paris

Mark Sykes begins an initiative due to a more interested government coalition in power, headed by Lloyd George and Balfour

Aaron Aaronson arrives in London and offers the British the services of NILI

Weizmann meets Mark Sykes for the first time

Sykes meet Zionist leaders

Weizmann elected president of the English Zionist Federation.

Mark Sykes given a redrafted memorandum of Zionist views

James de Rothschild meets Sykes.

Sokolov meets Georges-Picot at Mark Sykes’s residence.

Sykes, Sokolow and Weizmann meet at Sykes’s residence to review the situation.

The British fail to take Gaza twice in offensives in March and April 1917.

Tsar Overthrown

The United States declares war on Imperial Germany

French government recognizes historical relationship of Jews to the Land of Israe

Italians non-committal to Sokolow

Lord Rothschild writes the Times regarding Montefiore and Alexander

Board of Deputies of British Jews condemns statement of anti-Zionism in the Times

Weizmann becomes aware of the hitherto secret Sykes-Picot agreement

Weizmann meets Lloyd George for breakfast.

Sub-committee of war cabinet meets to consider British territorial claims at the end of the war. Lord Curzon suggests that Palestine should be included in a British protectorate.

Opening of the all-Russian Zionist Conference in St. Petersberg – the first since the February revolution.

Balfour arrives in the US following its entry into the war.

Balfour meets President Wilson and informs about L-G’s Zionist sympathies.

In a meeting with Chaim Weizmann and Lord Rothschild, Balfour promises a formal declaration of support for the Zionist venture.

Sokolov sends a draft of the declaration to Lord Rothschild, asking that it be sent on to Mark Sykes.

A small group of Zionists meet to consider a shorter version of the declaration sent on 12 July.

Balfour sends his own version of the Declaration based on previous Zionist drafts, to Lord Rothschild

British reinforcements on the way to Palestine

British forces attack Beersheba

Britain declares war on Turkey. Dismemberment of Turkey is a war aim, says PM Asquith

Weizmann tells Sokolow to drop talks with the French

Sokolow has audience with Pope Benedict XV

Sokolow meets Vatican Secretary of State

Sokolow received Vatican

Turks halt British advance in Palestine

Lord Robert Cecil seeks Jewish support for British in Palestine

Balfour raises Zionist hopes in DC

British War Cabinet decides to bring Palestine under British control

Balfour in Washington

Armenian lobbyist James Malcolm writes to Weizmann

Lloyd George: French will have to accept a British protectorate in Palestine

Sokolow writes to Weizmann about his meeting with French representatives

British assault on Gaza repelled

Sokolow seeks Alliance Israelite support

Weizmann writes to Brandeis asks he lobby US government to support Zionism

England wants suzerainty over Palestine, Sykes tells Picot

British troops again fail to capture Gaza

Kerensky government in Russia

Fall of tsar simplifies Big Power contest in Palestine

Lloyd George said to be “emphatic on the point of British Palestine”

Sykes tells Weizmann to prepare diplomatic follow-up after capture of Gaza

Starvation looms in Palestine


Lloyd George on British Army’s advance into Palestine

Battle for Gaza

Daily Chronicle backs Zionism

Turks expel Jews from Jaffa

British fail to capture the Gaza Strip

March 22, 1917 – Weizmann has serious practical talk with now Foreign Minister Arthur James Balfour on Zionism and a possible French or American role in Palestine

Medications in short supply in Palestine

Negotiations with Sykes entering final stage

Pale of Jewish Settlement abolished

Tsar Nicholas II abdicates

Weizmann Meets C.P. Scott

British troops capture Baghdad

British troops capture Sinai

French unwillingness to renounce claims to Palestine

Weizmann and Sokolow discuss Picot meeting

Sykes introduces Sokolow to Picot

Meeting with Sykes at home of Gaster

Moses Gaster diary

Weizmann meets Sykes

Lloyd George establishes a War Cabinet

Asquith resigns; Lloyd-George becomes Prime Minister

London Bombed

Battle of the Somme ends

Ruppin expelled from Palestine

Weizmann meets Wolf

McMahon-Hussein correspondence – Arabia to the Arabs

British disband Zion Mule Corps after the Gallipoli campaign

Sykes-Picot Agreement- France (Francois Georges Picot) and Britain (Sir Mark Sykes) concur on division of Ottoman Empire. Eretz Israel (Palestine) to be divided with France controlling the Galilee and Britain the Haifa area with Jerusalem under international control.

NYC Jewish Fair for war relief nets $75,000

Brandeis to address Zionist meeting

NY Merchants raise $150,000 for Palestine

March 1, 1916 Weizmann sees Balfour

Jews plan a demand for rights after war

Sykes writes to Samuel

Distribution Committee sends $142,000 for Palestine

Shipment of medicines sent to Palestine

Brandeis nominated to the US Supreme Court

US President Woodrow Wilson endorses charity “Jewish Relief Day”

Rabbi Stephen Wise on Zionism


Weizmann critical of munitions ministry

Pro Zionist Manchester “Guardian” leader

locusts has devastated Palestine

October 24, 1915- Sir Henry McMahon writes to Sharif Hussein bin Ali of the Hashemite family of Mecca pledging British government to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs in return for Arab uprising against Ottoman Turks


Coalition government formed by Asquith

RMS “Lusitania” sunk by German submarines ‎

C.P. Scott’s view is that “events are shaping in favour of a British Palestine”

Jabotinsky joins Trumpeldor to create Jewish Legion

Weizmann meets Balfour

Jews in Palestine perfectly safe

Turkey inciting Arabs to attack Jews

Palestinian Jews flee to Egypt

Weizmann and Samuel breakfast with Lloyd George

Weizmann- Lloyd George breakfast set

Turkey may be willing to sell land to Jews

Trumpeldor, Ben-Gurion and Ben Zvi are forced to leave Palestine

Herbert Samuel presents memorandum ‎British protectorate

Zionist leaders Nahum Sokolow and Jehiel Tschlenow arrive in London and join forces with Weizmann

Chaim Weizmann meets Baron Edmond de Rothschild in Paris

December 14, 1914 – Weizmann writes Ahad Ha’am about interview with Balfour who admired Weizmann’s assertiveness on Zionism

Nahum Sokolow arrives in England

Turkey cracks down on Jews

Weizmann meets Herbert Samuel

“Guardian” editor C.P. Scott writes to Weizmann

Herbert Samuel talks to British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey about Palestine’s fate

SLIDE 3 Turkey entered the war on the axis side on 5 November 1914

Weizmann meets CP Scott

Palestinian Jews fear deportation

Famine in Palestine

Slide 2 (B2) Outbreak of World War I. Britain declares war on Germany. US President Woodrow Wilson declares policy of US neutrality. Jewish world geographically divided among warring parties. Zionist programs paralyzed

Morgenthau in Palestine

rchduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, assassinated in Sarajevo setting off a series of events that will lead to World War I

Dashed Plans for Zionist-Arab Conference

Hebrew education

Arab nationalist opposition to Zionism

Baron Rothschild visits Palestine

Chaim Weizmann, speaking at the eleventh Zionist Congress 2-9 September 1913 in Vienna, announces raising of $100,000 to establish a Hebrew University in Jerusalem

German Jews oppose Zionism

Max Nordau, President of the 10th Zionist Congress

Journalist opposes Zionism

Turkey to grant Palestinian Jews autonomy?

Nathan Straus

Magnes encourages Jews to settle in Palestine



Nucleus of a Health System

10th Zionist Congress

Jerusalem’s Growing Jewish Population

Ninth Zionist Congress

Young Turks not sympathetic to Zionism

Third visit for Wolffsohn in Constantinople

Young Turk Revolution gives Zionists hope

April 23, 1909 – British Chief Rabbi Hermann Adler: Since destruction of Temple, Jews no longer constitute a nation and are exclusively a religious community

Young Judaea founded

1909 – Tel Aviv is founded on sand dunes near Jaffa

Young Turk Revolution

Joseph Cowen, Zionist leader pleads for aid to found a state in Palestine


Wolffsohn back in Constantinople

Weizmann visits Palestine

Schiff’s mixed feelings on Zionism

Zionist movement plans bank

Eighth Zionist Congress meets in The Hague. Decides to open Palestine branch in Jaffa led by Arthur Ruppin to facilitate agricultural settlement and development

Wolffsohn in Constantinople

Wolffsohn visits Palestine

HaShomer, organized

First Kibbutz Deganya

Tolstoy Opposes Zionism

All Russian Zionist organizations meets

Bezalel art school

Poale Zion Established

January 9, 1906 – Weizmann holds conversation with Balfour on Zionism.

Jews Flee Russian Persecutions

Herbert Samuel becomes first Jewish cabinet minister

1905 Aliens Act

Zionist Congress rejects Uganda project

First Weizmann-Balfour Meeting

Herzl Dies

Uganda Controversy Rages

Zionists send to Transjordan

Herzl meets with Pope Pius X

Herzl sees Italian King

Herzl meets Vatican Secretary of State

Second Aliyah

Teddy Roosevelt Flag

Uganda Controversy

Sixth Zionist Congress

Herzl Visits Russia

Anglo-Palestine Bank opens in Jaffa

JNF Buys Land

Chamberlain raises Uganda

Kishinev pogrom

El-Arish plan

Debate Over Zionism

N.Y. Shekel Day

Herzl publishes “Altneuland”

Herzl Meets J. Chamberlain

Herzl back in Turkey

Herzl in London

Herzl meets Nathaniel Meyer Rothschild

Mizrachi Orthodox Zionist movement founded in Vilna

December 29, 1901 – The Jewish National Fund is established

Fifth Zionist Congress

Herzl Meets Sultan

Jewish Farms in Palestine

Turkey Maintains Limits on Jewish Visitors

Fourth Zionist Congress

Turkey Limits how Long Jewish Visitors may stay in Palestine

Third Zionist Congress in Basle, August 15-18, 1899

Jewish Colonial Trust incorporated

40,000 Jews in Palestine

Herzl meets Kaiser Wilhelm II in Jerusalem ‎

Herzl greets Kaiser Wilhelm II

Kaiser Wilhelm II visits the Holy Land

Herzl meets Kaiser Wilhelm II in Constantinople on his way to Palestine

Second Zionist Congress held in Basle

Israel Zangwill defends Zionist idea

>September 10, 1897 – Reform Rabbi Isaac M. Wise of Cincinnati, Ohio writes in New York Times that a Jewish state is nowadays “impossible”

First Zionist Congress held in Basle, Switzerland August 29-31, 1897 – urges “a publicly and legally assured home in ‎Palestine” for Jews and establishes the World Zionist Organization. Theodor Herzl elected president

Reform rabbis meeting in Montreal issue strong statement against an independent Jewish state

First issue of Zionist newspaper “Die Welt” (The World) which will serve as Herzl’s platform

Herzl meets with Hovevei Zion representatives

Herzl sees Baron Edmond de Rothschild

Herzl publishes “The Jewish State” (“Der Judenstaat”)

In June 1896, Herzl visits Constantinople for first time. Meets with Grand Vizier Khalil Rifat Pasha and other officials and proposes plan to finance Turkey’s debt in return for turning Palestine over to the Jews. The Grand Vizier is unenthusiastic.

Dreyfus court-martialed

Theodor Herzl covers the Dreyfus Affair in Paris for Viennese newspaper “Neue Freie Presse”

Jewish Colonization Association incorporated in London by Baron Maurice de Hirsch of Paris

First Lord Rothschild

November 6-8, 1884 – Hovevei Zion (Lovers of Zion) hold first international Zionist convention in Kattowitz, Poland; Leon Pinsker voted to head it

Moshava of Gedera founded; Hadera and Rehovot founded in 1890

Joseph Feinberg from Rishon LeZion meets Baron Edmond de Rothschild in Paris

Rishon LeZion founded

Leon Pinsker publishes ‘Auto-Emancipation’

July 6, 1882 – First group of Bilu settlers arrives in Palestine as part of wave that becomes known as the First Aliya. Unlike the Old Yishuv of established Orthodox Palestinian Jews who subsisted on charity, new arrivals are pioneers who want to build a new Jewish society

Eliezer Ben Yehuda, considered the father of Modern Hebrew, arrives in Palestine

1878 – Petah Tikva and Gai Oni, the first two agricultural settlements, founded

Zevi Hirsch Kalischer, ultra-Orthodox German rabbi who advocated resettlement of Eretz Israel, dies. Most rabbis held that full-scale return to the Land of Israel must wait until the Messiah comes

Mikveh Israel, first Jewish agricultural school in Eretz Israel, founded

Moses Hess writes early Zionist polemic ‘Rome and Jerusalem’

First Hebrew newspaper in Russian Empire

Christian Crusaders capture Jerusalem – 1096

Arabs conquer Jerusalem 638

Jews of France emancipated, heralding the possibility of Jews integrating into general community

Romans destroy Second Temple. Beginning of the Exile

NILI espionage ring